This paper will explain what genetic programming is, what mancala is, how I used genetic programming to evolve mancalaplaying programs, and the results I got from doing so.
Genetic programming is an automatic programming technique  that is, a method for generating computer programs other than having a human write them  inspired by and roughly modeled on biological evolution. John R. Koza of Stanford University is generally considered the inventor of genetic programming, although there were a number of related techniques that preceded his discovery, most notably genetic algorithms (which were invented by John Holland at the University of Michigan in 1975). An outline of the genetic programming process follows:
This outline is essentially the same process that is used in genetic algorithms. The difference is that genetic algorithms are generally performed on bit strings, whereas genetic programming works on programs or virtual programs. The process will be described in more detail during the discussion of how this project was implemented.
The project that was decided on was to use genetic programming to evolve programs to play the game mancala. Mancala (also called Owari) is a twoplayer ancient African board game with many different variations. A mancala board is a board with 14 bowls carved into it.
As shown in Figure 1, the mancala board is initially set up with four stones in each of the small bowls. The larger bowls on either end of the board are called the mancalas. The rules for mancala as they were used in this project are as follows:
Parameters  Values 
objective:  evolve programs that can defeat a minimax strategy that uses an eight level depthfirst search in a game of mancala 
terminal set:  integers from 0 to 13 
function set:  IF_<_DO_ELSE_, ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, VALUE_AT 
fitness function:  first run: sum of the evaluated program's score versus dfs algorithm when the program goes first, and the evaluated program's score versus dfs algorithm when the program goes second
second run: as above times 100 minus the number of nodes in the program (with a minimum value of 1) 
population size:  512 
crossover probability:  90 percent 
mutation probability:  0.5 percent 
selection:  roulette wheel 
termination criteria:  none 
maximum number of generations:  150 
maximum depth of tree:  unlimited 
elitism used:  yes 
maximum mutation depth:  20 
Figure 3 is a list of all the major parameters used in this project. (It's called a Koza Tableau after it's creator). Note that this project was actually run twice, and the two runs were not identical. In the second run, the method for determining fitness was altered (more on this later).
One of the most common ways of representing programs in genetic programming is as trees. For this project, tree objects were written in C++ to represent the programs. The functions used were addition, subtraction (both of which have two child nodes), value_at (which returns the number of stones at a given location, and has one child node), and an if_<_do_else_ function (which has four child nodes, and returns the value returned by the third child node if the first child node is less than the second child node; otherwise it returns the fourth child node). All of the terminal nodes were integers from 0 to 13.
Figure 4 shows a simple example of a program that might be generated during a run of the program. It returns the value (98) + value_at(3), or one plus however many stones are at the third bowl on the board. Whenever it's time for the generated program to take a turn in a game of mancala this value will be calculated and interpreted as the cup that it wants to move.
To create the initial population, 512 programs such as the one depicted in Figure 4 were randomly created. Initial programs didn't exceed a depth of 16.
To evaluate the fitness of each program, two games of mancala were run between it and the depthfirst search algorithm  one in which the depthfirst search went first, and one in which it went second. In the first run, the program was then assigned a fitness value equal to the sum of its scores in each game. In the second run, it was assigned a fitness value equal to that sum times 100 minus the number of nodes in the program (if this would result in a nonpositive value, the fitness was set to 1).
After all of the fitness values were calculated, the next generation of the population was created. First of all, the program with the highest fitness value is copied into the next generation. This is called elitism, and ensures that at the very least, each generation has a solution as fit as the previous generation, if not better. We're sure never to lose the progress we've made that way.
To fill out the rest of the members of the population for the next generation, a member of the previous generation is selected at random. In this selection, each member has a chance to be selected proportional to its fitness. The probability that a given program will be selected is equal to its fitness value divided by the sum of all fitness values in the population. The selected program then has a 90% chance of having crossover performed on it, and a 0.5% chance of being mutated.
Crossover and mutation are how our population is diversified. They are the motor that propels us through the search space of all possible programs. If crossover occurs, another member of the previous generation is selected as before. A subtree is selected at random from this other program and is added to the first program in place of one of its subtrees. If mutation occurs, a node of the program is selected at random. All of its child nodes are deleted and new children are created for it at random.
The program is now added to the next generation of the population. This process of selecting programs from the previous generation, and then using crossover and mutation as necessary, is completed until the new generation is filled out. This new generation then in turn has its fitness evaluated, and the process continues.
Both runs of the project resulted in programs that could defeat the eightlevel depthfirst search algorithm whether it went first or not. The best fit members of both of their final generations are presented in Figure 5.
Solution for 1^{st} run: ((value at [(if (9) < (value at [(value at [((8)  ((2)  (6)))])]) do (10) else do (value at [(if (3) < (4) do (value at [(9)]) else do ((4)  ((1) + (value at [(13)]))))]))]) + ((if (value at [((value at [(13)]) + (value at [(value at [((13) + (3))])]))]) < (((10)  (3))  ((if (value at [((6) + (value at [(value at [((13) + (3))])]))]) < (((10)  (3))  (2)) do ((10)  (6)) else do ((13)  (value at [(value at [(value at [(3)])])])))  (3))) do ((10)  (6)) else do ((13)  (value at [(value at [(value at [(3)])])])))  (3))) Score_{1}: 27 Score_{2}: 25 Solution for 2^{nd} run: (((value at [(value at [(value at [(value at [(value at [(((value at [(value at [(value at [(value at [(value at [(value at [(7)])])])])])])  (value at [((0)  (value at [(value at [((value at [(value at [(7)])]) + ((value at [((0)  (value at [(5)]))]) + ((3) + ((value at [(7)]) + (10)))))])]))])) + (value at [(value at [((value at [(value at [(value at [(value at [(7)])])])]) + ((value at [(13)]) + ((value at [((0)  (value at [(5)]))]) + (10))))])]))])])])])])  (value at [((0)  (value at [(5)]))])) + (value at [(value at [((value at [(value at [(7)])]) + ((value at [((value at [(7)]) + (10))]) + ((3) + ((value at [((6) + (6))]) + (10)))))])])) Score_{1}: 41 Score_{2}: 25 
On the whole, the second run was more successful. In the first run, the programs quickly became bloated (as shown in Figure 7), and no further improvement was evolved after the 14th generation. In the second run  where a penalty for large program size was built into the fitness function  the average program size remained comparatively low (never getting much higher than 100 nodes). The second run continued to improve until past generation 100 and ended up evolving a program that did substantially better than the best program to come out of the first run. A comparison in Score1 + Score1 for the best program of each generation for the two runs is shown in Figure 6. Some general fitness information about both runs can be found in Figures 8 and 9.
The best solution that was found (in the second run) just barely squeaked by the DFS algorithm when it went second (2523) but it won by a wide margin when it was allowed to go first (417). Not only that, but it's much more efficient that an eightlevel depthfirst search. The DFS has to step through on the order of 68 (1,679,616) possible moves. The final program for the second run, on the other hand, only has a total of 80 nodes.
It's important to note, however, that this program is not a generally good mancala player. It only does this well against one specific opponent strategy that it has evolved to defeat. To prove this point, the DFS was run against 1,000 randomly created programs. The final program from each run were both then run against the same 1,000 programs. The results are quite telling (and can be seen in Figure 10). The DFS algorithm tended to win against the random programs with little problem. The evolved programs had trouble even tying. The DFS may be a generally good algorithm for playing mancala, but evolving a solution to beat it doesn't necessarily produce a solution that is a generally good algorithm. The evolved program may seize onto seemingly accidental facts about the state of the board when it plays against the DFS to determine which moves to make. When it plays an opponent that doesn't make the exact same moves, it doesn't work. To evolve a program that does well against a wide variety of opponents, it may be necessary for the fitness function to include playing against a number of different opponents.
DFS Score_{1}: 39 Score_{2}: 37 first Run Best Fit Score_{1}: 25 Score_{2}: 24 second Run Best Fit Score_{1}: 23 Score_{2}: 22 

Another thing to note is that the best fit program from the second run doesn't use the if_<_do_else_ operator at all. In any future runs, it may be wise to remove this function entirely. The more functions there are, the more possible solutions there are to search through. Adding unnecessary functions may only serve to slow down the process of finding optimal solutions.